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  • br a significantly increased risk of cancer

    2022-05-30


    a significantly increased risk of cancer mortality associated with Lp
    (a) or adiponectin in the current study, although there was a suggestion of increased risk for adiponectin. Studies with larger sample sizes may be needed to definitively evaluate the role of adiponectin and Lp(a) in cancer mortality among obese and non-obese individuals; it is possible that these associations are easier to detect in lean individuals.
    The associations between baseline biomarkers and risk of cancer mortality also varied by race. IL-6 was associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality among Blacks with normal BMI and 
    overweight/obesity, but only among Whites with overweight/obesity. CRP was associated with increased risk of cancer mortality among Whites with normal BMI, but not among Blacks despite those with over-weight/obesity having significantly higher mean CRP levels. This differ-ence may be because obese/overweight participants have other risk factors that cumulatively increase the risk of cancer mortality, and in-flammation due to CRP may not significantly further increase the risk in Acarbose with participants with normal BMI. A higher proportion of participants with normal BMI died of cancer in the REGARDS cohort
    Table 3
    Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer mortality by baseline inflammatory biomarkers.
    BMI categories
    pint with BMI
    Log transformed T3a
    Log transformed T3
    Crude model included the exposure and age.
    Model 1: Adjusted for age, gender, education, race, and income.
    Model 2: Acarbose Additionally adjusted for exercise.
    Model 3: Additionally adjusted for smoking status, alcohol use, aspirin use, statin, and comorbidity score.
    Bold indicates significance at 0.05 alpha level.
    pint, p for the interaction of the log form with BMI. The p-values are from type 3 tests. p for the interaction is considered significant at alpha = 0.1.
    Table 4
    Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer mortality by baseline metabolic biomarkers.
    BMI categories
    pint with BMI
    Log-transformed T3a
    Log transformed T3
    Crude model included the exposure and age.
    Model 1 adjusted for age, gender, education, race, and income.
    Model 2 additionally adjusted for exercise.
    Model 3 additionally adjusted for smoking status, alcohol use, aspirin use, statin, and comorbidity score.
    Bold indicates significance at 0.05 alpha level.
    pint, p for the interaction of the log form with BMI. The p-values are from type 3 tests. p for the interaction is considered significant at alpha = 0.1.
    Table 5
    Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer mortality by inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers by race.
    BMI categories
    pint with BMI
    Log-transformeda Log transformeda
    Model 1
    CRP
    Resistin
    Resistin
    Crude model included the exposure and age.
    Model 1 adjusted for age, gender, education, and income.
    Model 2 additionally adjusted for exercise.
    Model 3 further adjusted for comorbidity scores, smoking, alcohol, aspirin, and statin use.
    Bold indicates significance at 0.05 alpha level.
    pint, p for the interaction of the log form with BMI. The p-values are from type 3 tests. p for the interaction is considered significant at alpha = 0.1.
    a Biomarkers (except CRP) were log-transformed due to non-normal distributions. p-Values were ≤0.01. p-Values were ≤0.05 while the rest of p-values were N0.05.
    compared with overweight/obes participants; however, excluding par-ticipants that died within 6 months of entry into the cohort did not ma-terially change the results. In a previous study, IL-6 was found to be associated with increased risk of cancer mortality in both Blacks and White participants, consistent with current findings [46]. However, our analysis was underpowered given the limited sample sizes to detect racial differences in cancer mortality risk across BMI categories. Future studies with larger, racially diverse prospective cohorts, or including a larger subset of cells cohort, are needed to definitively evaluate racial dif-ferences in the independent and potentially synergistic associations of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with cancer mortality risk. The finding from this study improves our understanding of the role of metabolic health status and obesity in cancer outcomes and adds to the limited but growing literature that will inform race-specific cancer prevention interventions.