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  • In our study we did not correct for possible biases

    2019-08-11

    In our study, we did not correct for possible biases in the estimates of country population. The official population figures are lower than the figures reported during the censuses. However it is not clear whether it is the result of the underestimation between the censuses or the double registration during the censuses [51]. In an effort to avoid underestimation of the true burden, we applied a correction to cervical cancer mortality. However, this re-allocation is not an optimal method for correcting rates. Systematic and continuous Dexmedetomidine between the cancer incidence and mortality records is the only reliable way to build up reliable estimates. Cancer registries in several regions in Russia systematically link their data with regional civil registries. However, this process needs to be adequately implemented. Finally, we did not report hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer rates, as no estimate of the number of hysterectomies was available. This may also have resulted in an underestimation of the cervical cancer burden [52]. The study, as its major strength, does however provide, using observed data on both incidence and mortality from the National Cancer Registry, a detailed assessment of the breast and cervical cancer burden in Russia, correcting for known misclassification of uterine cancer mortality.
    Conflict ofinterest statement
    Source of funding This work was funded by Faculty of Social Sciences of University of Tampere grants for participants of International Doctoral Programme in Epidemiology. This source of funding and support had no involvement in the study design, data collection, analysis or interpretation, or the writing of the report
    Author contributions Anton Barchuk: study design, literature search and review, data identification and extraction, data analysis, data interpretation, writing, reviewing and revising the manuscript, final approval of the version to be submitted. Anssi Auvinen: study design, data interpretation, reviewing manuscript, writing, reviewing and revising the manuscript, final approval of the version to be submitted. Ahti Anttila: study design, data interpretation, reviewing manuscript, final approval of the version to be submitted. Irina Laricheva on behalf of the Russian State Cancer Registry research group (Andrey Kaprin, Olga Gretsova, Galina Petrov, Mikhail Prostov, Irina Laricheva and Valery Starinsky): data identification and extraction, reviewing manuscript, final approval of the version to be submitted. Alexander Bespalov and Heini Huhtala: study design, data analysis, reviewing manuscript, final approval of the version to be submitted. Tuvshinjargal Chimed and Alexey Belyaev: data interpretation, reviewing manuscript, final approval of the version to be submitted. Freddie Bray: reviewing and revising the manuscript, final approval of the version to be submitted.
    Acknowledgements
    Introduction Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy in the Western world [1]. Its incidence has been increasing for nearly 3 decades in most developed countries, while the total mortality has decreased [2]. Thyroid cancer often manifests as a palpable nodule which is a frequent clinical presentation; hardwoods has a prevalence of 4–7% among the Western adult population. Roughly 5% of palpable thyroid tumors are malignant, and are nearly three times more frequent in women than in men [3]. The WHO categorizes thyroid cancer into nine subtypes based on histology. The differentiated thyroid cancers comprise the vast majority of histological types and are associated with an excellent prognosis; in contrast, the anaplastic carcinoma has a poor prognosis [5]. The increase in thyroid cancer is almost exclusively attributable to an increase in papillary carcinomas. The advancements in diagnostic methods, with the implementation of advanced imaging modalities (e.g. ultrasound and PET-CT) in the past decades, have led to the recognition of papillary microcarcinomas (<1 cm). This is the group of carcinomas that has predominantly increased, and the diagnosis usually occurs incidentally [2,6].