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  • br Several LMWG formulations and gel nanoparticle


    Several LMWG formulations and gel-nanoparticle composites (Chaudhari et al., 2015; Appel et al., 2012) have shown the ability to recover near-total initial strength. We have observed here that gel structure is not compromised after injection of the nanocomposite hy-drogel formulation and this is of significant importance for future in vivo experiments.
    4. Conclusions
    A novel nanocomposite formulation, consisting of an in-situ forming hydrogel containing polymeric NCs, has been developed. The hydrogel, here described for the first time, is made of a low molecular weight gelator (N4-octanoyl-2′-deoxycytidine) and has been shown able to accommodate a significant amount of NCs within its fibrillar structure. The NCs, produced by a self-emulsification technique, were a very small size (40–150 nm) and provided a controlled release of the drug en-capsulated for more than one month. Specific features of this nano-composite formulation include (i) adequate mechanical strength; (ii) capacity to control the released of the nanocapsules; and (iii) ability to gel in situ upon injection. This formulation could have potential for intratumoural delivery of anticancer drugs in the case of unresectable cancers such as gastric, pancreatic or oesophageal cancer. This delivery technology could also be of interest as a long acting injectable for subcutaneous or intra-cavital administration.
    Declaration of interest
    The authors declare that they Sotrastaurin (AEB071) have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influ-ence the work reported in this paper.
    Authors acknowledge as well the assistance provided by Mike Fay and Christopher Parmenter in Nottingham Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Centre for TEM imaging. Secondly, special thanks to Kathryn Skilling for synthesis of compounds N4-myristoyl gemcitabine and N4-octanoyl-2′-deoxycytidine.
    This work was supported by the European Commission, Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA), Erasmus Mundus programme, NanoFar doctorate funding (Project number: 2013-04-C2-EM).
    Appendix A. Supplementary data
    Meerovich, G., Meerovich, I., Lukyanets, E., Oborotova, N., Derkacheva, V., Smirnova, Z., Pevgov, V., Zorin, A., Gurevich, D., Loschenov, V., Vorozhtsov, G., Baryshnikov, A., 2008. Influence of liposome size on accumulation in tumor and therapeutic efficiency of liposomal near-IR photosensitizer for PDT based on aluminum hydroxide tetra-3-phenylthiophthalocyanine. Nsti Nanotech. Tech. Proc. 2, 41–44.
    Nanda, J., Adhikari, B., Basak, S., Banerjee, A., 2012. Formation of hybrid hydrogels consisting of tripeptide and different silver nanoparticle-capped ligands: modulation  International Journal of Pharmaceutics 565 (2019) 151–161
    Hyaluronan nanocapsules as a new vehicle for intracellular drug delivery. Eur. J.
    Şenyiğit, Z., Karavana, S., İlem-Özdemir, D., Çalışkan, Ç., Waldner, C., Şen, S., Bernkop-Schnürch, A., Baloğlu, E., 2015. Design and evaluation of an intravesical delivery system for superficial bladder cancer: preparation of gemcitabine HCl-loaded chit-osan – thioglycolic acid nanoparticles and comparison of chitosan/poloxamer gels as carriers. Int. J. Nanomed. 10, 6493–6507.
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